Abilitatile sociale se refera la capacitatea copilului de a comunica cu cei din jur intr-un mod acceptabil si potrivit. Cand un copil are abilitati sociale atunci poate sa formeze prietenii si sa intretina conversatii simple. In articolul de fata veti descoperi ce abilitati sociale sunt afectate in cazul copiilor cu autism si care sunt mijloacele prin care putem imbunatati aceste abilitati care sa-i permita copilului sa aiba relatii sociale si sa se adapteze in diferite medii.

Abilitatile sociale si autismul

Este o perceptie gresita sa credem ca cei cu autism nu au prieteni pentru ca sunt antisociali. Total gresit, copiii cu autism vor sa isi faca prieteni si sa vorbeasca cu cei din jur, dar nu stiu intotdeauna cum sa faca asta. Cand cineva spune ca unui copil ii lipsesc abilitatile sociale inseamna ca acel copil nu afiseaza comportamentul dorit in preajma celorlati copii, astfel fiind dificil sa isi faca prieteni. Spre exemplu, un copil cu autism s-ar putea sa ia jucaria altui copil fara a cere permisiunea ceea ce ar putea fi vazut ca un comportament negativ de cei din jur, dar copiii cu autism nu intelege asta.

Ce abilitati sociale sunt afectate de autism?

Sa inveti un copil cu autism sa aiba abilitati sociale poate parea uneori o adevarata provocare intrucat unul dintre efectele autismului este o intarziere a abilitatilor de comunicare si sociale. Printre simptomele care afecteaza aceste abilitati se numara:
• Intarzieri in dezvoltarea limbajului
• Incapacitatea de a citi indiciile non-verbale
• Incapacitatea de a intelege comportamentele celor din jur
• Dificultati in intelegerea glumelor
• Incapacitatea de a purta o conversatie

Strategii privind invatarea si dezvoltarea abilitatilor sociale

Sesiunile de terapie si interventia expertilor pot sa imbunatateasca abilitatile sociale ale copiilor cu autism. Dar, in egala masura, parintii si terapeutii trebuie sa consolideze acasa aceste abilitati prin exercitii, pentru a atinge rezultatele asteptate. Iata cateva strategii pe care parintii si terapeutii le pot folosi:

Jocuri rol
Jocurile de rol pot sa ajute un copil sa invete un comportament asteptat sau neasteptat intr-un anume scenariu. De exemplu, daca un copil se duce la scoala pentru prima data, jocul de rol il poate ajuta sa exerseze situatia de a merge la scoala.

Jucati-va jocuri impreuna
Inainte ca un copil sa se joace cu ceilalti, o idee buna ar fi sa invete sa se joace cu parintii. Parintii ii pot explica regulile jocului si pot observa comportamentul copilului pe parcursul jocului. Jocul are avantajul de a-l face pe copil sa inteleaga importanta regulilor, respectarea randului, predarea stafetei sau sa aiba o conduita potrivita jocului. Printre jocurile recomandate sunt, „De-a v-ati ascunselea”, lovirea mingii inainte si inapoi sau jocuri de imitatie.

Urmareste video-uri
Daca unui copil ii este teama de o anumita activitate, cum ar fi mersul la dentist, puteti urmari impreuna cu copilul diferite video-uri cu oameni sau copii in timpul vizitei la dentist. Il ajuta pe copil sa stie la ce sa se astepte atunci cand intra in clinica dentara.

Cum sa ii invatati abilitati sociale in diferite medii

Unii dintre copiii cu autism pot invata diferite abilitati cu privire la un anumit mediu, dar nu vor mai aplica aceste abilitati daca intervin schimbari. Parintii, profesorii si terapeuti trebuie sa lucreze impreuna pentru a-l ajuta pe copil sa generalizeze si sa se adapteze mediului incanjurator.

La scoala, profesorii pot ajuta la dezvoltarea abilitatilor sociale ale copiilor cu autism facand clasa confortabila, incurajand copilul sa participe la activitati sau sa aleaga diferite teme sau jucarii care ar putea sa ii capteze interesul copilului. Acasa parintii trebuie sa continue cu utilizarea acelorasi practici pe care copilul le intalneste in sedintele de terapie, procesul de invatare fiind continuu.

Astfel, abilitatile sociale nu sunt importante doar pentru a crea relatii sau prietenii, ci pentru a dezvolta abilitati de viata de care copiii au nevoie ca adulti. Au nevoie sa stie cand sa nu vorbeasca sau cand sa fie disciplinati si responsabili. La nivel social, copilul trebuie sa stie sa se joace cu ceilalti, sa vorbeasca, sa gestioneze emotiile si sa sa rezolve problemele.

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Social skills refer to a child’s ability to communicate with others in a way that is acceptable and appropriate. When a child has social skills, he/she can form friendships and can carry a simple conversation.

Social Skills and Autism

It’s a common misconception that children with autism do not make friends because they are anti-social. This is not the case. Children with autism want to make friends and talk to others, but they don’t always know how to do it properly. When someone says a child lacks social skills, it means he/she does not display expected behavior around other children, making it harder to make friends.

What Social Skills Are Affected by Autism?

Teaching a child with autism social skills can be a challenge sometimes. This is mainly because one of the key symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lack or delay in social and communication skills.
The symptoms that affect a child’s social skills are:
• Delays in speech development
• Inability to read non-verbal cues
• Failure to understand the feelings of others
• Difficulty understanding jokes, sarcasm, or teasing
• Unable to carry a conversation
• Repeats words and phrases over and over (echolalia)
• Gives unrelated answers to questions

Strategies for teaching and developing social skills

Therapy sessions and expert interventions can improve the social skills of children with autism. But, it is equally important that parents and caregivers reinforce social skills training at home to achieve optimum results.
Here are some strategies that parents and caregivers can use:
Role-play
Role-playing can help a child learn expected and unexpected behavior in a given scenario. For instance, if a child is going to school for the first time, role-play can help him/her practice the actual event of going to school.
Before a child is sent out to play with others, it’s a good idea to “practice” playing with a parent or sibling. Parents can explain how the game works and observe the child’s behavior throughout the game.
Play games together
Some games to play are:
• Kicking a ball back and forth
• Simon Says
• Hide and Seek
• Simple board games like Jenga or Connect Four
Watch videos or observe others
If a child is anxious about a social activity, such as going to the dentist, you can watch videos of people or kids during a dental visit. It is helpful if you explain to the child what to expect when he/she arrives in the clinic. It can also help the child recognize basic courtesy skills like greeting the doctor and following instructions.

How to Teach Social Skills In Different Environments

Some children with autism can learn a skill within a certain environment but will stop applying the skill when the situation changes. Parents, teachers, and caregivers must all work together to help a child with autism become regular with his/her ability to socialize. or school-age children with autism, attending school itself is a challenge they face every day. In addition to academic challenges, they also deal with other children in their class.

Teachers can help children with autism with their social skills by:
• Making the classroom comfortable (no loud noise or bright lights)
• Encourage the child to take part in activities
• Pick topics and toys that he/she might have a great interest in
• Model good social skills

Parents and caregivers are expected to reinforce what a child is learning from social skills training or school. Talking to the child’s therapist or teacher will help parents create their own ways to teach social skills at home.

Autism Social Skills: How to Enhace Social Interaction

Sourcehttps://www.autismparentingmagazine.com/autism-social-skills/

 

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