Copiii de 3-4 ani ar trebui sa stie pana la aceasta varsta in jur de 500 de cuvinte si ar trebui sa fie capabili sa descrie situatii sau diverse lucruri intr-un mod coerent. Pentru paritii ai caror copii sufera de autism aceasta borna este de cele mai multe ori intangibia. Una dintre tehnicile revolutionare care a schimbat si imbunatatit abilitatile de vorbire ale celor din spectrul autist este PECS sau comunicarea prin imagini, subiect pe care il voi aborda pe larg in cele ce urmeaza.

Una din principalele caracteristici ale copiilor cu autism este reprezentata de intarzieri in limbaj, ceea ce poate conduce uneori la frustrarea celui care nu are abilitatea de a comunica ceea ce doreste. In acelasi timp, pe langa frustrarea copilului, poate interveni si cea a parintilor intrucat nu intuiesc de fiecare data care sunt nevoile sau cerintele copiilor.

In acest caz, o metoda prin care sa prevenim starea de agitatie si frustrare atat a copilului, cat si a parintelui, este utilizarea comunicarii prin imagini, adica tehnica prin care se utilizeaza simboluri sau diferite imagini pentru a indica anumite nevoi sau elemente necesare copilului.

In linii mari, copilul inmaneaza o poza sau indica ceea ce isi doreste cu ajutorul unei imagini. Acest lucru incurajeaza implicarea si initiaza comunicarea intre copil si parinte/terapeut. Odata cu trecerea timpului, aceasta metoda poate fi avansata si deprinsa de copil. Spre exemplu, el poate invata mai intai simbolul pentru „vreau” si apoi sa indice articolul solicitat.

Nu exista dovezi care sa indice ca ajutoarele sau indiciile vizuale ar afecta dezvoltarea vorbirii in urmatorii ani de viata ai copilului. Din contra, in randul terapeutilor exsita convingerea ca utilizarea comunicarii prin imagini are un impact benefic asupra dezvoltarii vorbirii, reducand anxietatea si frustrarea copiilor provocate de lipsa dezvoltarii verbale.

Comunicarea prin imagini mai poate fi folosita si pentru a-i forma copilului anumite deprinderi folosite in activitatile de zi cu zi, cum ar fi periatul dintilor, imbracatul sau folosirea toaletei. Astfel, daca intampinati dificultati in ceea ce priveste comunicarea si intelegerea copiilor cu autism, o metoda benefica, usoara si sanatoasa pentru a va dezvolta verbal si cognitiv copilul este comunicarea prin imagini.

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 As a pediatrician, I have been taught that the developmental progress of a three to four-year-old should include well over 500 words and a child should be able to describe things and situations in a meaningful way.

This milestone is one that all parents strive for as it is an important part of a child’s development. For parents with a child with special needs and autism, this milestone may seem at times unachievable. The delay in speech and communication skills were hallmarks of my son’s autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and I was faced with a daily dose of frustration from a child who was not able to communicate his wants and needs. My frustrations were on par with his when I was not able to guess what it was that he was trying to say. The exchanges would frequently end up with one or both of us in tears.

PECS uses visual pictures and symbols as a form of communication with a child with limited verbal communications. At its most basic, the child hands you the picture or indicates by pointing to a picture of what they want. It encourages engagement and initiates communication between the child and parent/carer. PECS is later extended over several stages over a period of time. For example, the child would learn to use two PECS symbols; the first – a symbol for ‘I want’ and the second – the symbol for the item requested.

There is no evidence to indicate that visual aids , visual cues or the use of PECS cards would interfere with or inhibit the development of speech in later years. In fact, there is a growing belief in the speech therapists community that systems such as PECS have a beneficial impact on speech development and will reduce the frustration and anxiety caused to children by their lack of speech development. PECS can also be used as visual cues or visual schedules to display step-by-step sequences for learning every day activities of daily living such as how to brush teeth, getting dressed and using the toilet.

Quick Tips on Communications for Children With Autism and Special Needs

Source: https://www.autismparentingmagazine.com/tips-on-communications-with-autism/