Cercetarile din domeniu arata ca sunt o multime de motive care sa indice ca cei cu autism, mai ales copiii, ar putea avea dificutati in ceea ce priveste orientarea in timp sau sa isi aminteasca ordinea evenimentelor. Aceasta abilitate redusa se pare ca are un impact negativ asupra invatarii si dezvoltarii altor functii cognitive. In ceea ce priveste limbajul, deficientele temporale se pare ca impacteaza secventialitatea – adica ablitatea pe care o folosim atunci cand descompunem un eveniment in pasi simpli si punem acei pasi in ordine. Avem nevie de abilitati de secventiere pentru a vorbi despre ceva ce s-a intamplat in trecut intr-o maniera logica, astfel incat ceilalti sa poata urmari povestea.

Indivizii care au probleme in secventialitatea limbajului ar putea intampina dificultati de scriere si vorbire. De asemenea, copiilor le-ar putea fi afectata abilitatea de a urma instructiuni, de a povesti coerent diverse intamplari sau de a realiza sarcini care presupun mai multi pasi. Abilitatile de oganizare, prioritizare si secventialitate ne ajuta sa ne planificam vietile si sa gestionam timpul eficient. Din fericire, exista o varietate de activitati si sarcini simpe care ii ajuta pe cei cu autism sa-si dezvolte astfel de abilitati, dupa cum urmeaza:

Pune intrebari

Facilitati limbajul punandu-i copilului intrebari deschise despre evenimente obisnuite, cum ar fi „Cum te speli pe maini?” sau „Ce faci dimineata?” Daca cel mic nu va spune secventa in ordine, ajutati-l, dupa care cereti-i sa repete verbal secventa respectiva.

Modelare

Dupa ce ii cititi o poveste sau va uitati la un show tv, povestiti-i copilului inlantuirea de evenimente citite sau vizionate, folosind cuvinte precum „in primul rand”, „in continuare”, „apoi”, „in ultimul rand” pentru a-l ajuta sa-si dezvolte abilitatile narative.

Analiza sarcinilor

Implicati-va copilul in activitati casnice cum ar fi spalatul rufelor, pregatirea mesei sau plantatul. Solicitati copilului sa verbalizeze sau sa foloseasca imagini pentru a descompune sarcina propusa.

Autocontrol

Aceasta practica ii ajuta pe copii sa-si monitorizeze si sa-si evalueze propriul comportament fara interventia adultilor. Faceti un program bine definit pentru ca cel mic sa stie la ce sa se astepte in fiecare zi. Utilizati un sistem de recomense, cum ar fi stelute sau jetoane pe masura ce copilul indeplineste sarcina. Daca este cazul, copilul poate sa isi faca propriul program pentru a exersa secvetialitatea zilnic. Asta il va ajuta sa devina organizat in viitor.

Video modelare

Alegeti un video in care cineva intreprinde o insiruire de actiuni. Lasati copilul sa urmareasca video-ul pentru a invata, dupa care discutati pasii pentru a rezolva sarcinile, cum ar fi sa sune la telefon sau sa puna masa. Puneti-i intrebari precum „Ce faci prima data?”, „Ce faci mai departe?”, „Ce se intampla ultima data?. Lasati copilul sa rezolve lucrurile singur sau puteti sa il si ajutati.

Suport vizual

Folositi carticele sau imagini pentru a-l invata pe copil ordinea logica a evenimentelor. Aceasta activitate ii da copilului sansa sa-si testeze abilitatile secventiale fara a avea nevoie sa verbalizeze. Organizarea grafica ar putea fi folosita pentru a-l ajuta pe copil sa povesteasca cum a fost la scoala, cum s-a distrat in parc sau in vacanta. Pentru dezvoltarea vocabularului introduceti desene sau ilustratii.

Exista o varietate de strategii practice pentru dezvoltarea limbajului secvential care pot fi exersate in fiecare zi atat la scoala, cat si acasa. Colaborarea dintre parinti, profesori si terapeuti este cheia pentru dezvoltarea acestor abilitati necesare in viata de zi cu zi a copiilor.

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 Available research and parental reports suggest there are a number of reasons to suspect that people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have difficulty judging the passage of time and recalling the order of events. While there is limited research on the topic at this time, a small study found that individuals with autism demonstrated deficits in temporal processing—the rate at which we can process auditory information. This reduced ability appears to have an adverse impact on learning and development of other cognitive functions. As this relates to language, deficits in temporal processing appear to impact sequencing—the ability to organize actions, events, language, and thoughts in order.

Individuals with language sequencing problems may display issues with spoken and/or written language. Challenges with sequencing may affect a child’s ability to follow instructions, share coherent narratives and complete multi-step tasks. Sequencing skills are necessary to talk and write about events and experiences in the past in a logical manner. Organizing, prioritizing and sequencing skills help us plan our lives and manage time effectively. Fortunately, there are a variety of simple activities and tasks to help develop sequencing skills in individuals with ASD.

Ask Questions

Facilitate language by asking your child open-ended questions about familiar events (e.g., How do you wash your hands? How do you get ready in the morning?). If your child tells you the sequence out of order, help put it in order, then ask him/her to retell the sequence.

Modeling

After reading a story or watching a TV show, retell the sequence of events including the beginning, middle, and Use transition words (i.e., first, next, then, last) to help develop narrative skills.

Task Analysis

Have your child engage in activities such as doing laundry, making a meal or planting a garden. Ask your child to verbalize or use pictures to sequence the target task.

Self Management

This practice helps individuals learn to monitor and evaluate their behavior without adult prompts or intervention. Make schedules, so the student knows what to expect each day. Use a token reinforcement system (e.g., checkmarks, stars, etc.) as the child completes tasks. If appropriate, the child can make his/her own schedule to practice daily sequencing of events. This will help develop organization and independence over time.

Video Modeling

Choose a video of the child or someone else performing a sequence of actions. Have the child watch the video to learn and discuss the steps to complete a task, for example making a phone call or setting the table. Ask questions such as, “What do you do first?, “What do you do next?” or “What happens last?” Have the child complete the task with or without assistance.

Visual Supports

Use story sequencing cards (i.e., pictures) to teach your child logical order of events. This activity gives the child a chance to demonstrate their sequencing skills without verbal demands. Graphic organizers may be used to practice telling stories that have all the key details in the appropriate order. This can help your child narrate his/her school day, trip to the park or things that happened on vacation. Incorporate drawings and illustrations to help elicit vocabulary.

Fortunately, there are a variety of practical strategies to practice language sequencing daily across home and school environments. Collaboration between parents, teachers, and specialists is key to addressing and generalizing this important skill in school and life.

6 Practical Strategies to Support Language Sequencing

Source: https://www.autismparentingmagazine.com/strategies-to-support-language-sequencing/

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